Rapidly Varied Flow â The Hydraulic Jump Use of hydraulic jumps Specific force revisited Sequent or conjugate depths Types of jump Uses of. View HIDROLIKA SALURAN from SI at Bandung Institute of Technology. HIDROLIKA SALURAN TERBUKA SAADAH MEILUFI, ST MT. Hidrolika saluran terbuka (open channel hydraulics): Bab I: prinsip-prinsip dasar hidrolika saluran terbuka; Bab II: aliran seragam / disusun oleh Martono.
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Step-down; use to move jump downstreamHorizontal Expansions and ContractionsSimilar principles apply.
Approach VelocityPrevious equation is derived from Bernoulli assuming the approach ie upstream velocity is zero. There is a trash screen at the inlet with 12 20mm diameter bars in a 1. Typical Stilling Basin DesignExpansions and ContractionsVertical ContractionConsidering a vertical contraction, the momentum change between sections 2 and 3 may be written as: Then, for a wide channel: This is a step-up; use it to move or fix jump upstreamVertical ExpansionSimilarly: Determine where the hydraulic jump forms.
ReferenceNone for this part. Aliran melalui saluran terbuka Documents. May extend for many kilometres in cities. Various types of flow can exist as follows. The depth upstream of the gate is 5. Also, the coefficient of discharge Cd can be defined as: Baffle blocks are often used to increase energy dissipation. This oscillates tfrbuka bed to surface and back, producing waves of irregular period downstreamAvoid in design.
The six possible types of flow as shown. Pratikum Hidrolika Saluran Terbuka Documents. The depth upstream of the gate is 2. The energy dissipation may require the bed to be protected against scour and it is necessary therefore to know what length to protect.
ImportantYou have to use Specific Force for hydraulic jumps because the friction loss in the fluid due to the eddying is significantSpecific Energy does not work because it neglects frictionSpecific Force wont work on weirs etc because it does not consider the force on the weir itself. The downstream channel is rectangular, 3. Various values and formulae for CD, which can vary particularly at low flows when viscosity and surface tension come more into playSubmergenceModular flow is flow when downstream level is too low to affect flow over weir you design for this.
A salhran in the bed is used to control the position of the jump, ensuring that y3 is artificially raised to the required level to force the jump. Hidrolika Saluraj Terbuka Download Report.
Published on Nov View 23 Download 0. What vertical expansion would be required to ensure the jump starts at the vena contracta, and what is the corresponding height of the jump. Hidrolika Terapan Sal Terbuka Documents. Can connect to chart recorder or satellite etc. Kondisi aliran pada culvert Documents. ExampleFlow enters a channel through an undershot sluice gate. Definition SketchDesign Principlesadequate size to pass debris thus avoiding need for a trash screenself-cleansing debris and silt removal avoid slope or cross-section changes which might reduce capacity, catch debris or lead to silting upvisual appearanceease of constructionlow maintenancerisk to children, drunken students etc.
Design and AnalysisFlow that a culvert must pass depends on upstream catchment. Free flow and surcharged conditions. Typically made from precast sections. Type varies with flow so multiple analysis required. Hidrolika Saluran Terbuka Documents. Example 1Considering the previous example on a hydraulic jump, determine the size of the step required to bring the start of the hydraulic jump to the vena contracta after the sluice gate.
Aliran Dalam Saluran Terbuka – Gunadarma menganggap bahwa jumlah debit aliran sama dari masing Assume no energy losses, and that the channel is wide compared to its depth.
Modular limit occurs when downstream level rises above this limit and flow over weir is affectedCan use Villemonte formula if downstream depth y3 can be estimated. ExampleA vertical, underflow sluice gate 3m wide is opened to 0. P3a can be obtained from hydrostatics. Locating a Hydraulic JumpThe location of the hydraulic jump is controlled by the downstream depth typically normal depth.
Hidrolika saluran-terbuka – Wen-te Chow – Google Books
ExampleAn existing box culvert is 1. Determine the capacity of the culvert. The maximum allowable headwater depth is 2. Sluice GatesGiven upstream water levelDetermine required gate opening to pass a particular dischargeEnergy principle applies: Chapter 13 on Hydraulic Structures is all worth a read.
Determine the flow through the gate and the horizontal force on the gate. The Froude Number Fr is used to characterize a jump.
Stilling BasinsIt is often necessary to control the location saljran a hydraulic jump. This type of weir is cheaper to construct and more resilient than sharp-crested or V-notch, but V-notch is more sensitive at low flows.
Stilling Basin DesignThere is a lot of empirical workA good source of design guidelines is the US Bureau of Land Reclamation USBR Typically the length of a hydraulic jump will approximate to 6 y2-y1where y2 and y1 are the downstream and upstream conjugate depths.
If y2 yconj, the jump moves upstream and may break against the gate. CulvertsDefinitionDesign of culvertsAnalysis of existing culvertsDefinition of CulvertsCovered channel or pipe carrying a watercourse under an obstruction such as a road.