First, my understanding of environmental determinism is the idea that physical environment, climate and geography shape human thought. Environmental possibilism and determinism are theories, put forth in and the observed effect of such interactions is called human geography. ADVERTISEMENTS: Dichotomy between Determinism and Possibilism of Geography! In the history of geographical concepts, there have been.

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The study of the influence exerted by these groups on landscape is reduced to the definition of purely external factors of the cultural landscape type and deployment of houses, land use, field patterns, etc.

Similarly, there is no doubt that the low stature and dteerminism physique of most of the tribals, the rural masses and the slum-dwellers of India are the result of starvation, undernourishment and malnutrition.

Determinism and Possibilism in Geography – General Knowledge Today

Possibilism thus tended to exaggerate the role of culture and to neglect the importance of natural environment. Human adaption to the environment. Geddes tried to establish that the poorly-nourished people are prey to malaria. Retrieved from ” https: In spite of the fact that man has numerous possibilities in a given physical setting, he cannot go against the directions laid by the physical environment.

In no environment are the possibilities limitless and for every choice price must be paid, proponents of possibilism admit this, but within these limits freedom to choose exists.

This philosophy attempts to explain man and environment relationship in a different way, taking man as an active agent in environment.

He was convinced that the course of history, the mode of life of a people and the stage of its development are closely influenced by the physical features and location of a place in relation to mountains and plains. The view that although the physical environment does not uniquely determine human actions, it does nevertheless make some response more than others.

Both Vidal de la Blache and Lucien Febvre believe that nature, powsibilism this case, is not geogrpahy but permissive. Vidal de la Blache developed this geographical possiibilism as a un to a more traditional possiiblism way of thinking, which is known as environmental determinism.

Lab Safety Rules for Kids. These may be overgeneralizations as many other factors like standard of living and socio-cultural attributes also contribute to birth rate, yet there is no denying the fact that the quality of diet has much bearing on the increase, decrease and longevity of the population of a region.


The poor physique of the Somalians, Nepalis, Bangladesis and Vietnamese may also be explained against the background of their poor diet and undernourishment. Possibilism has also been influential in the rise of the school of cultural geography associated with the name of Carl Ortwin Sauer and the University of California at Berkeley, and with the development of the idea of human ecology. Fabvre echoes this view: The theological school of thought advocated the idea of a designed earth: The bitter struggle for existence makes the hill men industrious, frugal, provident and honest.

But there is nothing fixed or rigid about un. Page enhanced and added by Rens Mennen — RensMennen For example, a complete knowledge about the environment resources may not be available; the data available about the resources and their utilization may not be reliable; the perception about resources environment differs from man to man, community to community, region to region and country to country.

This provided a logical reasoning for diversity that was observed among the various civilizations and settlements of humans across the globe. Other authors involved in developing possibilism are Isaiah Possibioism and Carl Sauer. There is little in their environment to stimulate them to change and little reaches them from the outside world. This page was last edited on 16 Augustat Who Invented the Battery.

Attributes, Classification of Regional and Regionalism. The people of the Mediterranean region geograpjy the climate is temperate and mild are gay, humorous, sporting and imaginative as life is easy.

The point of view is that the physical environment controls the course of human action. The fact is, there are no separate races of ponies. As stated earlier, the origin of environmental determinism lies in the work of Charles Darwin, whose seminal book Origin of Species influenced many scientists. In brief, at the very largest scale we can be determinists, where as at the more local scales we can see the virtue of possibilism or cultural and social determinism.

Contrary to this, the people of plain parts of Europe are energetic, serious, thoughtful rather than emotional, and cautious rather than impulsive. The prohibitive cost of production of these crops will compel man not to grow these crops in the tundra region. Studies related to this field attempt to establish the human or natural factors underlying the environmental changes occurring at that site.

Determinism and Possibilism in Geography

Social groups can be distinguished with reference to ethnic, religious, professional and certain other features, while social changes are only noted but rarely linked with any fundamental economic causes or the class structure of society. In support of his hypothesis, he stated that the determinisj Muslims in India are much less subject to malaria than are the Hindus with their vegetarian diet.


The assessment of a mountain pass, for example, will differ for those who possess horses, automobiles, aeroplanes; the assessment of soil fertility will not be identical from the point of view of a Japanese farmer, on the one hand, or an Amazonian Indian, on the other. Variations in attitudes and habits create numerous possibilities for human communities.

But wisdom and folly are human concepts. The influence of physical factors on food habits and the consequent effect on the rate of birth in different regions can possibiliism seen in the fact that the high birth georgaphy above 30 are all confined to tropical countries.

Possibilism (geography)

She has entered into his bones and tissues, into his mind and soul. In India and Malaysia, only about 7 grams and 8 grams of animal protein is consumed respectively and the corresponding birth rate in these countries is 35 and 33 per thousand respectively. In brief, the approach of possibilism may be as ludicrous as determinism, but possibilistic generally recognised the limits to action which environment set, and avoid the great generalizations which characterised their antagonists.

Environmental determinism is regarded by many people as overly simplistic because it neglects the cultural factors that affect human behaviour. But he should not, if he is wise, depart from directions as indicated by the natural environment. Geographical determinism continued to dominate the writings of the Arab geographers.

Taylor was even more careful to poossibilism accurate data about environment and to relate these to his idea of human habitability, especially in Australia. You must be logged determinizm to post a comment. There are no necessities but everywhere possibilities. There is nothing indeed that contradicts the assertion of Febvre founder of possibilism that there are no necessities but everywhere possibilities and man as a master of these possibilities is the judge of their use.

Aristotle, and the historians Thucydides, Xenophon, and Herodotus.